Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have many roles to fill across many different organizations. In the "public sector," which typically refers to governmental services, A GIS can play a supplementary or primary role at different levels in the organization. In this real estate department, there might be a handful of GIS professionals, or even a few dozen solely dedicated to GIS analysis. In addition to technical and communication skills, a GIS professional should be mindful of best practices and other considerations when organizing and planning their GIS work, such as following the CIA/AIC Triad of confidentiality, availability, and integrity when planning GIS. GIS and cartography have a long history but in years it become a part of everyday life, given the proliferation of GPS-enabled cell phones. "Collaborative GIS" are more common today than ever and allow individuals and organizations to share documents across the Internet using cloud services and mobile applications.