DOI link for Efficient Implementation
Efficient Implementation book
Many public-key encryption and digital signature schemes, and some hash functions (see §9.4.3), require computations in ℤm, the integers modulo m (m is a large positive integer which may or may not be a prime). For example, the RSA, Rabin, and ElGamal schemes require efficient methods for performing multiplication and exponentiation in ℤm. Although ℤm is prominent in many aspects of modern applied cryptography, other algebraic structures are also important. These include, but are not limited to, polynomial rings, finite fields, and finite cyclic groups. For example, the group formed by the points on an elliptic curve over a finite field has considerable appeal for various cryptographic applications. The efficiency of a particular cryptographic scheme based on any one of these algebraic structures will depend on a number of factors, such as parameter size, time-memory tradeoffs, processing power available, software and/or hardware optimization, and mathematical algorithms.