This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques for air pollution control and mitigation. It covers industrial air pollution, discussing conventional air pollution control using established engineering methods. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence draft guidance on outdoor air quality and health, proposes recommendations to avoid acceleration and deceleration on roads, specifically through 'use of variable speed limits and average speed technology on the roadside to promote a smoother driving style'. In order to pinpoint the hot spots of air pollution sources within a system – be it an industrial production process or an urban activity – life cycle assessment and/or material flow analysis methodologies have proven to be useful diagnostic tools. The chapter also provides a brief case study covering the net effect of vegetation intervention, combining both air pollution deposition to and emissions from different tree species in order to rank their utilisation in sustainable air pollution mitigation.