Schomberg, 2013, p. 54). According to the international community

the State is the main subject which has primary responsibility

for the protection of human rights in the face of threats from

technoscience (Francioni, 2007), including the responsibility to

ensure respect for human rights by business enterprises (Weschka,

2006, p. 654). Beside States, the individual has become a subject of

international law as a holder of rights (e.g. human rights) and duties

(e.g. the duty to respect human rights with regard to transnational

corporations), which means that the individual can both claim

violations to his/her own rights by the State through supranational

courts (e.g. the European Court of Human Rights) and, in certain

cases, be called on to answer for their own violations (e.g. with

regard to international crimes before the International Penal Court

either in the case of transnational corporations having assumed

special self-obligations to a code of conduct, or through third-

party certification arrangements) (Pariotti, 2007, 2013). It is in

this legal framework that we must understand the phenomenon of

technoscientific development, its limits and its latent threats to the

human being. Thus the emergence of clear State responsibility in

the question of research and development (R&D) can be deemed

an acquired result of the international framework, whose path can

be seen as a succession of steps towards the complete affirmation

of human rights law in this matter and should be considered a

phenomenon still in progress.