Industrial ecology (IE) is critically reviewed, discussed, analyzed, and summarized in this

chapter. Topics covered include: IE definitions, goals, roles, objectives, approach, applications,

implementation framework, implementation levels, industrial ecologists’ qualifications, and

ways and means for analysis and design. The benefits of IE are shown as they relate to

sustainable agriculture, industry, and environment, zero emission and zero discharge, hazardous

wastes, cleaner production, waste minimization, pollution prevention, design for environment,

material substitution, dematerialization, decarbonation, greenhouse gas, process substitution,

environmental restoration, and site remediation [1-46]. Case histories using the IE concept

have been gathered by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),

Vienna, Austria [39-41]. This chapter presents these case histories to illustrate cleaner

production, zero discharge, waste minimization, material substitution, process substitution, and