The 1902 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Hermann Emil Fischer “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses.” Fischer's accomplishments were wide in scope and breadth and had great depth. A chemical reaction shows aldehyde phenylhydrazone catalyzed by zinc chloride to form aromatic heterocycle indole. Fischer is accurate as he continues that “synthesis of both natural and artificial sugars provided a simple explanation for the chemical origin of this.”The Kiliani–Fischer synthesis has been an especially important and well-used reaction for carbohydrate chemistry for over a century. In the grand scheme of things, more than for a particular chemical transformation or operation, Fischer's award was bestowed for a body of work contributing to the fields of purine and carbohydrate syntheses.