This chapter outlines the various techniques that may be employed in analytical quality assurance (AQA), and the reasons why they should be used. Reliability of data for a water quality monitoring programme depends on strict adherence to a wide range of operating procedures for water sampling and analysis. It is the consistent application and monitoring of these procedures that is referred to as quality assurance. The subject can be confusing, especially if more than one reference work is used as an information source. Different authors may use different terms to describe the same thing or the same term to describe different things. A number of the terms used in analytical quality assurance are defined in Table 9.1. The definitions are based on the vocabulary approved by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) but may not have been universally adopted by those involved in AQA.