How many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites are there in the United States and what will be the cost of their remediation (i.e., cleanup)? What are the broad characteristics of these sites, and where does the public rank the health hazard of hazardous waste sites? Moreover, what is meant by hazardous waste and public health in the context of this book? This chapter addresses these questions and introduces CERCLA and RCRA, the two key federal statutes on waste management.