Bioremediation of petroleum in soil using indigenous microorganisms has proven effective; however, the biodegradation rate of more recalcitrant and potentially toxic petroleum contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is rapid at first but declines quickly. In greenhouse studies, phytoremediation was found to be a feasible method for cleanup of surface soil contaminated with petroleum products. In this project, aged petroleum-contaminated soil located at the Craney Island Fuel Terminal Biological Treatment Facility was treated using phytoremediation. The primary means of assessing contaminant dissipation was soil analysis using an improved extraction procedure. Fibrous roots offer more root surface area for microbial colonization than other roots and result in a larger microbial population in the contaminated soil. Based on evidence from greenhouse and field studies, phytoremediation is a viable remediation method for petroleum-contaminated soil. The use of vegetation for remediation of contaminated sites is attractive because it is inexpensive and passive.