This chapter considers the plant economy under different age groups collectively so as to point out in which particular aspect progress is evident and in which there are signs of retrogression. The remains of agricultural crops recovered from the Neolithic I period of occupation at Burzahom are extremely interesting. These belong to cereals, a pulse, and some horticultural crops. The plant assemblage during the Neolithic II period consists of cereals, a pulse, horticultural crops, and associated weeds. Agricultural economy consists of cereals, pulses, horticultural crops, and weed seeds during the Megalithic period. This period is characterized by the introduction of rice, a totally new crop with different requirements for its growth. The overall evidence reveals that during the Indo-Greek period, that is, toward the beginning of the Christian era, quite a large number of plant species had been cultivated, indicating a continuous upward trend in the rural economic and agricultural development.