ABSTRACT

Being cold is universally unpleasant and there are similar physiological mechanisms for responding to cold stress among all populations. Newborn babies and babies in general are vulnerable because of their immature development, large surface area to volume ratio (efficient for heat loss) and a tendency to be wet. Most babies exhibit thermogenesis and maybe shivering when cold, and brown fat provides extra heat in the cold. It is located in the neck, spine and around vital organs and contains the numerous blood vessels and an increased density of the mitochondria. Physiological thermoregulation tends towards that of adults; however, behavioural thermoregulation is often naive and inappropriate. Children require guidance and supervision to ensure the effective behavioural thermoregulation in the cold. A major development, beneficial to individuals and to society, has been the participation of the people with disabilities in the sport.