Promising avenues are now opportune for the significant inclusion of fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites as structural components in aerospace, automobile, railways, marine, and wind power sectors, where the high weight of conventional materials has been a significant obstacle. The use of nanocomposites for different engineering applications has been increasing day by day. The machining of composites/nanocomposites materials is quite a complex task due to their heterogeneity and the fact that reinforcements are highly abrasive. During the development of nanocomposites, agglomeration of nanofillers/fibers is the main concern, which needs to be avoided for better distribution of nanofillers in the polymer, metal, or ceramic matrix. Chapter 1 focuses on the introduction to the development of nanocomposites and the different possible conventional and nonconventional machining processes.