Sustainable manufacturing has become an important and strategic priority to achieve overall production efficiency, considering economic, environmental, and societal aspects simultaneously. It can be summarized as a reduction in power/energy consumption; waste reduction; improvements in workers’ health; improvement in product quality and durability; the 3Rs enhancement, i.e., recycling, reuse, and re-manufacturing; and development of renewable energy. This chapter discusses sustainable machining of nanocomposites considering environmental aspects and machinability using various cooling/lubrication techniques, social sustainability focused on the health improvement, safety of operator, enhancement of quality of life of people, ethics, training and education, and social relationship with workers. In manufacturing processes, machining cost plays vital role in terms of economy and focuses on direct and indirect costs of capital, environment, and societal factors. It has the greatest impact on economy and technological viability. Some findings are also presented related to the study of economics in this chapter with due emphasis on machining of nanocomposites.