ABSTRACT

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) based photovoltaic (PV) technologies are a major part of the energy markets today and promise to be even more so in the future. They are the most mature of all PV technologies and compare successfully against the competitors. The bright future of c-Si in the world’s PV energy markets comes at a price and has a number of clouds hanging over it in the shape of unresolved technical issues some of which are quite significant and need to be addressed and resolved. Its mining, transport, and purification do not require hi-tech equipment, but still use extremely energy-and labor-intensive and otherwise expensive processes, since very large quantities are needed and extracted daily. The chemical element silicon in its purest form consists of a large number of atoms, each atom with 4 electrons orbiting its periphery. The thermal resistance of the module depends on the thickness of the material and its thermal resistivity.