In industrial automation, there is a well-known methodology called the USA approach – Understand, Simplify, Automate. Cases of activities on construction sites will be used to discuss the potential for automation. In general, identifying the automation hardware should start with a literature review or technology survey. In the past, chains and tapes were used for measuring horizontal distances, and the odolites were used to measure vertical levels as well as angles. Excavation is an essential activity in many construction projects; in mining it is the most important activity. The chapter explores the possibility of applying automation techniques to on-site construction activities. Hardware design involves studying the kinematics and dynamics. High-level software for automation might require advanced computational techniques such as machine learning.