Learning and memory are extraordinarily crucial, yet simultaneously complicated, capabilities of the human brain. Learning is a biological process of gaining new knowledge, whereas memory allows one to store, recall, and restructure the information learned. The brain has proficiency in receiving, analyzing, and filtering the information in a well-structured sequence, organizing what has been learned, remembered, and forgotten. In today’s modern era of science and technology, the living standards and patterns of health and diseases have been completely changed. Environmental pollution and climate changes are the most significant challenges for human lives and the global health care system. The addition of mobile phone technology has changed the face of the modern world. Presently, about 7.68 billion inhabitants possess a mobile phone, which surpasses the total count of the world’s population, and over 7 million base-station towers exist globally. The World Health Organization recognizes radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) as a type of environmental pollution and a possible cause of cancer. The present chapter highlights pathophysiological aspects of memory, types of memory, and the effect of RF-EMFR on memory and cognitive functions. It was identified that RF-EMFR could cause an impairment in human memory and cognitive functions.