This chapter provides a broad overview of the road ahead by exploring the changing demographic profile characteristic of developed and developing countries; the rising prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases; the globalization of emerging infectious diseases; and the utilization of technology. The United States, long an outlier among industrialized nations in terms of financing healthcare, is likely to experience continued turbulence in its healthcare system. Modern technology is rapidly changing healthcare. New technologies allow greater access to healthcare services and increase efficiency, while more sophisticated analytical tools allow researchers to mine health data to identify high value interventions, reduce medical mistakes, and improve quality. One of the marvels of modern technology is the development of novel pharmaceutical products. Prescription drugs are allowing many individuals to live longer and overcome conditions that once would be debilitating or even fatal. Advances in sanitation, nutrition, medicine, and technology are allowing more people to survive into old age than ever before.