Historians have come to realize that the scientific and medical theories that developed in China and India were complex, productive, and different from European concepts. Additional insights into the practice of Indian medicine and surgery can be gleaned from ancient laws, monuments, inscriptions, surgical instruments, artwork, and the stories told by travelers, pilgrims, and foreign invaders. A study of contemporary folklore and the work of traditional healers may also throw light on ancient practices. The most direct guide to ancient Indian medicine can be found in the classics of Ayurvedic medicine. Perhaps the most striking aspect of ancient Indian medicine was the range of surgical interventions and the level of success claimed by the disciples of Susruta and Caraka. Medical care of pregnant women encompassed efforts to ensure male offspring, management of diet, easing the pains of labor, safe delivery, and the postpartum care of mother and child.