The term Renaissance designates the rebirth of the arts and sciences that accompanied the complex economic, social, political, and intellectual transformations taking place in Europe between about 1300 and 1650. As the Renaissance transformed the arts, the Scientific Revolution ultimately transformed ideas about the nature of the universe and the nature of man. John Caius was a medical student at the University of Padua when he met Andreas Vesalius, the rising star of Renaissance anatomy. The development of a special relationship with anatomy, mathematics, optics, and the inspiration of classical Greek ideals gave Renaissance art much of its distinctive character. Many Renaissance physicians were convinced that syphilis was unknown in Europe until the end of the fifteenth century. In the 2010s, Guatemalan plaintiffs attempted to sue the agencies and institutions they considered responsible for the damages caused by the syphilis studies.