The nineteenth century was transformative period in American medicine, as demonstrated by the proliferation of medical schools, medical societies, medical theories, and advances in the biomedical sciences. Distrust of orthodox medicine and a resurgence of religious enthusiasm led many Americans to alternative medicine, faith healing, and spiritual quests for wellness. The staggering burden of the Civil War eclipsed many aspects of the health reform movement, diverted attention and resources, and contributed to the disappearance of many hygienic institutions, spas, schools, and sanitariums. But as the story of Ellen G. White and Dr. John Harvey Kellogg shows, new leaders continued to promote the ideals of the early health crusades. John Harvey Kellogg grew up in a devout Seventh Day Adventist family that accepted the healthy living principles advocated by the church. The modern health food market is largely an upscale one, but during the 1890s Edward Atkinson, a wealthy businessman, attempted to bring the benefits of nutrition science to poor workers.