Pharmacognosy is the branch of pharmacy that a century or so ago was the most important, comprising the area of academic concentration of over half of advanced degree pharmacists, though today it is only a small fraction of that. The cerebroprotective influence of a harmala alkaloid-rich fraction from P. harmala seeds was quantified in mice subjected to sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration by Biradar et al. Coccidia is a large subclass of obligate parasitic, single-celled protozoa that spend their lives and reproduce within animal cells. Infected animals, which may include any mammal, many fish, and birds, spread spores called oocysts in their feces. Leishmaniasis is a common protozoal parasitic disease affecting millions of people each year in over a hundred countries. The parasite is spread by sand flies, and can result in both visceral and cutaneous forms. Part of harmal's historical usage relates to relief of pain, so antipain properties of P. harmala have been examined.