This chapter introduces the topics of how to estimate ground movements caused by the construction of tunnels in soft ground, the importance of these ground movements with respect to their effects on adjacent structures and how these movements are monitored during the construction process. From the point of view of damage to structures and services, it is important to determine not only vertical displacements within the ground, but also the horizontal movements as these influence the horizontal strains induced in structures and services. One of the most important aspects of tunnelling in soft ground is assessing the effect of any ground disturbance caused by the tunnelling operations on surface or subsurface structures. The location of the structure in relation to the ground deformations influences the movements it experiences. In the urban environment, there are often situations where tunnels are constructed close to existing subsurface structures and hence there is a need to estimate the settlements below the ground surface.