With the rapid development of the mobile Internet, the demand of positioning and navigation is increasing gradually, especially in complex indoor environments, in which the positions of the immobile/mobile objects, for example, individuals, facilities, and goods, are generally needed to be determined in real-time for provisioning of various smart services. These complex indoor environments include airport halls, exhibition halls, warehouses, supermarkets, libraries, underground car parks, and other environments. In general, the indoor positioning systems aim to locate and track an object within buildings or closed environment by exploiting various radio waves, optical tracking, magnetic field or ultrasonic technology, and so on. Positioning and tracking system is the basis for many applications on monitoring and activity recognition. For example, in the supermarket, by obtaining the relevant position information of the consumers and target commodities, the supermarket is able to provide the services of the route guidance and the intelligent shopping guide. Moreover, the indoor positioning system can be specially employed for guiding the rescuers to search the building and to rescue the trapped personnel quickly when a sudden disaster happens. In addition, the position technology can be used in hospital, that is, the patient’s monitoring and the management of the medical equipment.