A primary goal of epidemiologic research is to understand the nature of disease in a population, for example, the well-known relationship between smoking and lung cancer. To move from the raw data measuring a history of smoking and diagnosed lung cancers to smoking cessation policies requires analytic procedures run on the dataset to connect these two things together. Analytic procedures require the use of a special software, known as a statistical platform. Epidemiology can broadly be defined as a "study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to control health problems". It is inherently a quantitative science, and the core aspect to the "study of the distribution and determinants" is study design and analysis. When designing an epidemiological study, the researcher identifies a population and draws a sample of individuals.