A riveted connection can be made in several ways: impact, spinning, or squeeze forming. It is generally recognized that riveted joints can fail under certain cyclic loads, even though rivet holes can act as crack propagation inhibitors. The fatigue life of a riveted joint can be enhanced by increasing the number of rivet rows. The initial elastic response of a complete bolted joint can be seen with the aid of a simplified diagram. The current view of preload exceeding the amount normally required by design is based on the premise that a bolted joint seldom fails under purely static conditions. Various arguments can be made for and against the calculations of spring stiffness parameters in a bolted joint. The stiffness model of the clamped members in a bolted joint can be based on a barrel, cylinder, or a pair of frustum cones, each containing a central hole equal to the nominal diameter of the bolt.