Force Gauges with Elastic Deformation Elements
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Mechanical vacuum gauges measure the force effect directly and independently on the gas nature. One of the reviews of mechanical vacuum gauges was given by Hunt. The mechanical vacuum gauges are differential devices that measure pressure against a reference pressure. A variety of designs based on the principle of elastic deformation of pressure-sensing elements have been developed. When the gauges are exposed to higher temperatures, the deformation of the elastic sensing component can be permanent. Temperature variation also affects the elasticity of the sensing element. High-precision measurements require temperature stabilization of sensing elements. Bourdon gauges use mechanical elements that are elastically deformed when connected to a system with pressure that differs from the referenced pressure. The elastic elements can be flattened tubes with a rolled shape, which are made of thin elastic metals, such as bronze, and Cube. Diaphragms, capsules, and bellows as sensing elements have broadly been used in mechanical vacuum gauges.