In 1990, Operation Sun Devil was launched by the United States Secret Service (USSS) and grew into a nationwide orchestrated crackdown on computer hacking groups located throughout the United States. The name Sun Devil is derived from the Arizona State University (ASU) Sun Devil football stadium, which is in close proximity to the local Secret Service headquarters from which the investigation and federal government raids were coordinated. It involved forays into roughly 15 US metropolitan areas and led to multiple arrests and the confiscation of computers, computer bulletin board networks, and various storage media. The arrests and ensuing court cases brought about the establishment of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Operation Sun Devil has also been viewed as one of the earlier assaults on the Legion of Doom and other hacking groups.