Linear Raman Spectroscopy
DOI link for Linear Raman Spectroscopy
Linear Raman Spectroscopy book
In this chapter, the main applications of “common” Raman spectroscopy are discussed, specifically the determination of fundamental molecular properties and analytical measurement techniques. The chapter commences with a survey of how molecule-specific information can be extracted from the measured data. In particular, necessary calibration procedures are addressed, which allow for the exact determination of the excitation laser wavelength; the calibration of the Raman shift scale (which gives access to vibrational mode frequencies); and the determination of absolute Raman intensities. All these are combined in a basic theoretical framework, linked by a set of relevant equations, which allows for quantification of molecular constituents in the sample. Based upon this framework, the measurement of molecular properties is discussed, which—besides the determination of specific vibrational modes—addresses polarization-dependent measurement tasks; these allow one to derive molecular chirality from the measurement of Raman optical activity. In the second half of the chapter, representative examples for the application of linear Raman spectroscopy to the specific analysis of gaseous, liquid, and solid samples are given. These include, among others, chemical process analysis and remote analysis (in the form of LIDAR); and the extraction of compositional and structural information from soft-tissue materials.