Just-in-time (JIT) is an approach that enables a healthcare organization to efficiently and reliably produce the quality services its patients require—when they need them, where they need them, and in the amount they need. Implementing JIT often means dramatic changes in the way processes are carried out. This chapter explains why these and other changes are worthwhile for the readers and their organization. It introduces basic JIT concepts and principles. Based upon a preindustrial craft model, traditional methods of healthcare are simply not capable of producing the appropriate healthcare services for large patient populations at just the right time, at just the right place, at just the right price, and in just the quantities they need. JIT benefits clinicians and staff members by strengthening the organization's competitiveness, which supports job security. It also makes the daily care of patients go smoother by eliminating various wastes that cause problems.