This chapter examines the influence of social, political, and business factors on the technical and operational outcomes of systems. The theory of 3PE model for enterprise systems modeling is introduced. The conceptual elements of the 3PE model—product, process, people—and their interactions, and operated within a defined environment, are explained. An industry case study is used to illustrate how these factors can be identified in such a system. The modeling method is then extended with quantitative analysis. This approach is demonstrated by analyzing changes in a company going through an internal improvement process.