China’s scientific and technological system has made very important contributions to its national economic and social development since the reform began. This chapter outlines China’s science and technology infrastructure, its development status, and the goals of science and technology policy as well as national management of the electronics industry. International trade data for certain technology categories reveals that China’s top priority is development of its information technology infrastructure. Apart from sending people to other countries to study, China’s industrial and scientific community has been conducting academic discussions and technology exchanges with its counterparts in foreign countries. International science and technology collaboration is one of the most effective ways to popularize modern civilization, promote social progress, and strengthen economic cooperation. National policy set the general direction for resource allocation in Chinese science and technology development. The year 1982 was significant in China for science and education policy in general.