This chapter introduces about China’s telecommunications industry, discusses the development of China’s data communications network, the increasing popularity of the Internet, and the growth of the mobile communications market. China has rapidly developed an advanced telecommunications structure, driven by economic reform, global trade growth, and modest liberalization. China’s telecommunication industry has undergone three major periods of development since economic reform and the open door policy began in 1978. As China made a commitment to economic reform and opening domestic markets for foreign investment, telecommunications service has become ever more significant for the development of the national economy. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, under the guidance of the State Council, held a monopoly over all telecommunications services in China until 1994. The growth in China’s telecommunications market has been particularly rapid since the formation in 1994 of China United Telecommunications Corporation.