The actively caring model supported by research proposes that certain person states inside people increase their willingness to look beyond self-interests and consider the safety of others. Thus, conditions and procedures that increase these states will indirectly increase the amount of actively caring among people. Factors consistently mentioned as shaping self-esteem include communication techniques, reinforcement and punishment contingencies, and leadership styles. Self-efficacy is more situation specific than self-esteem, and so it fluctuates more readily. The Personal perception key is to reduce the probability the learner will make an error and feel lowered effectiveness or self-efficacy. Anything that increases our self-efficacy should increase optimism. Some of the ways to increase perceptions of personal control are: setting short-term goals and tracking progress toward long-term accomplishment, posting response feedback graphs of group performance and showing employees how to graph daily records of baseline, intervention, and follow-up data.