This chapter reviews the basic principles underlying a behavior-based approach to the prevention and treatment of human problems. The behavior-based principles are: primacy of behavior, direct assessment and evaluation, intervention by managers and peers. Because at-risk behaviors contribute to most if not all injuries, a Total Safety Culture requires a decrease in at-risk behaviors. Organizations have attempted to do this by targeting at-risk acts, exclusive of safe acts, and using corrective feedback, reprimands, or disciplinary action to motivate behavior change. Psychologists define learning as a change in behavior, or potential to behave in a certain way, resulting from direct and indirect experience. While the effects of learning are widespread and varied, it's generally believed there are three basic models: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. The flashing blue light might also serve as a conditioned stimulus eliciting a negative emotional reaction. This is an example of classical conditioning occurring simultaneously with operant learning.