This chapter offers some basic guidelines for diagnosing the human behavior aspects of a safety-related problem. Most of the factors contributing to a behavioral discrepancy are due to the context in which the task is performed or characteristics of the task itself. Common contextual variables include: Unclear or misunderstood expectancies, Upside-down contingencies that reward at-risk behavior or punish safe behavior, the lack of behavior-based feedback to help people improve. To achieve a Total Safety Culture, behavior-based safety training is needed throughout a work culture. Education and training reflect an instructional approach to corrective action. A complete behavioral safety analysis should often include a recommendation for a certain type of behavior-change intervention. An instructional intervention is typically an activator or antecedent event used to get new behavior started or to move behavior from the automatic stage to the self-directed stage.