ABSTRACT

In early 2010, the newly appointed director of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services for the U.S. Department of Justice Bernard Melekian claimed that there were four components of policing that needed to change to ensure the survival of American policing: a change in the way that police deliver their services, the use of technology, the use of volunteers, and the introduction of the regionalization/consolidation of police agencies (Thomson, 2012). While these four components were identified in the context of U.S. policing, they apply equally to policing in any western democracy. The four components that Melekian identified, in concert with the complexity of law enforcement, public safety, and homeland security, have created a need for local police agencies to transform their structures and methods of service delivery to improve efficiency and effectiveness. The drive to improve the delivery of service means that police agencies need to examine how they can deliver their services using fewer resources. Agencies need to use fewer resources when government funding has been reduced, and if agencies are to maintain their service delivery levels, they need to use resources more efficiently and effectively. Without the appropriate level of resources, “do more with less” often means that agencies need to divert existing resources from noncore services and prioritize calls for service.