Modern medicines have been transformed hugely in the last decade due to spectacular technological advancements. Herbal medicines still remain the mainstay of medicine for most underdeveloped and developing nations. In most developed nations, increasing recognition of the value of traditional herbal healing systems is partly due to unique and affordable approach of traditional systems to the healthcare system and partly due to real and perceived limitations in conventional care. A series of plant-derived medicines have been introduced in the past but most of them never completed their journey. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Indian Ayurveda (IA), typical ethnomedicines derived from the practice of ancient Chinese and Indians, is a summary of thousands of years of clinical experiences. During its formation and development, it was greatly impacted by traditional Chinese and Indian culture and exhibited a signicant cultural imprint. In contrast, modern medicine has abandoned the cultural impact and is entirely based on the experimental natural sciences. It is clear that dramatic differences have existed between traditional medicine (TM) and modern medicine in the theoretical development, the cognitive approach, and the way of thinking, and so on, which form the huge gap between them (Chen et al., 2013). This gap is affecting the potential of joint use of TM and modern medicine that can revolutionize the treatment of diseases.