Solar energy is the oldest form of natural energy on planet Earth. While the idea of utilizing solar fuels is not new, the development of the materials and the specific mechanisms that might ultimately provide the best solution have come a long way since the early days of solar thermal electric technology. A major goal in this undertaking is related to the development of new materials for the construction of modern solar cells. It is not only the chemistry of the materials that is of vital importance to the success of a solar cell, it is also the surface and film characteristics that are also important. The development of microscopy over the last three decades has seen an enormous degree of increase in resolution and methodology to perfect the imaging and scanning ability of organic materials. The use of spectroscopy has been a main tool for the analysis of structure-function relationships important to organic solar cells.