In Chapter 2, the theoretical underpinnings of this research, namely, Schema Theory and the perceptual cycle model (PCM; Neisser, 1976), were reviewed. This chapter applies these theories to a case study of an aviation accident in order to test their explanatory power at providing a detailed understanding of decision-making. As described in Chapter 1, the overarching aim of this book is to gain a more process-orientated understanding of decision-making as opposed to solely focusing on the end product of the decision-making process and labelling it ‘human error’. The PCM provides a systemic perspective, focusing on human activity in the context in which it occurred. This chapter explores the decisions and actions of the pilots preceding the 1989 Kegworth aviation accident. It is demonstrated that the decisions undertaken, which later appeared erroneous, were, at the time, appropriate responses to the world information the pilots were presented with and the internal mental schemata that they held.