A collective decision to shift our perspective from short-term gain to assessing design flaws that lead to wasted materials, money, time and effort or cause pollution has significant impacts on creating an effective building that lasts. The consideration of both economic and environmental aspects in building construction is paramount to achieving a balanced and efficient building design. The type of material, chosen at concept design, will influence the workmanship required at construction, and specification affects quality control on site. The selection and specification of robust, durable materials in building design is the difference between a building that needs to be demolished within the designers’ or owner’s lifetime and one that lasts centuries. Robust design is all about managing the risks associated with the unique site conditions skilfully. Structural components and/or mechanical elements, such as pressure vessels and pipes, are subjected to thermal loads due to high temperature, high temperature gradient and cyclical changes of temperature.