Normal Accident Theory (NAT) is perhaps the approach that most clearly states that it is a theory. It is stated in the name itself, and clearly expressed by Perrow: ‘NAT is a theory of major system failures and system damage’. One rationale for Integrated Operations (IO) is to streamline and standardise the work processes to make them safer and more efficient. Many of the informants in the study emphasised the approximate nature of operations and the dominant role of ‘gut feeling’ associated with interpretation and decision-making. A challenge of evaluating the consequences of the ongoing change process of IO is that one to a large extent deals with visions and prospective technologies. Although IO is an ongoing process and much of the already existing technologies and work processes of drilling operations fit well into the IO definition, a large portion of the research on IO and safety relate to parts of IO to be implemented or developed.