This chapter is a question and answer style article that contains past FRCA paper examples related to neurosurgery, neuroradiology and neurocritical care. It also guides trainees on the most effective manner in which to approach these questions. The discussion covers the following: features required to meet the American-European criteria for a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); the clinical indices used to quantify and communicate problems with oxygenation in ARDS; what tidal volume would traine select for a patient that meets the criteria for ARDS; and the ventilatory and non-ventilatory measures that can be taken to improve oxygenation or prevent further deterioration in a patient with ARDS.