This chapter is a question and answer style article that contains past FRCA paper examples related to neurosurgery, neuroradiology and neurocritical care. It also guides trainees on the most effective manner in which to approach these questions. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of four major direct causes of maternal mortality in the 2006–2008 report from Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). The discussion covers the following: how does AFE present clinically; the differential diagnoses of AFE; and two possible theories on the pathophysiology of AFE.