This chapter is a question and answer style article that contains past FRCA paper examples related to neurosurgery, neuroradiology and neurocritical care. It also guides trainees on the most effective manner in which to approach these questions. The chapter discusses a case study of 52-year-old man who has been admitted for a tympanoplasty on the morning of surgery. He is a longstanding insulin-dependent diabetic who has failed to attend the preoperative assessment clinic. The discussion covers the following: what specific issues does this patient's diabetes present (30%); examines how should his diabetes be managed whilst in hospital (35%); and the anaesthetic considerations for tympanoplasty (35%).