Phytoremediation with wetland plants is considered to be an eco-friendly and cost-effective tool, unlike the existing conventional chemical technologies. This chapter covers phytoremediation from a global perspective, including recent advances in mechanisms, as well as potential applications of this phytotechnology. To this end, microbial associations, as an integral component of wetland plants, are vital for the success of phytotechnologies and need special focus. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the role of microbial consortium in the phytoremediation of environmental contaminants with wetland plants and macrophytes. It is worth mentioning that algal-based remediation (phycoremediation) is also a specific component of phytoremediation in a broader perspective. A list of global wetland plants used in the phytoremediation of emerging contaminants from soil and wetland systems is provided.