Two studies have been carried out on the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on reproduction in Coturnix. Fertility was satisfactory except at the highest level, and hatchability was improved the basal by 0.38 and 0.76% levels, but decreased at higher levels of EDTA. In another study, fertility and hatchability were improved by the addition of 0.5% Na2-EDTA to a practical diet based upon corn and soybean meal. Dietary supplementation of the dam with Cu sulfate during pregnancy and lactation will ameliorate partially the effects of the gene. Cu nitrilotriacetate was shown to be more effective than copper sulfate in increasing postnatal survival and body Cu content of offspring when dams were supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. D-Penicillamine (DP) has the capacity to chelate metals, particularly Cu, and increases the rate of Cu excretion in the urine. In contrast to DP, which chelates Cu through the sulfhydryl group, triethylenetetraamine binds Cu through its electronegative nitrogens.