The presence or absence of coralline algae, as well as characteristics of their growth, are largely influenced by environmental conditions. The seasonality of growth and reproduction of Corallina officinalis in the North Atlantic is poorly known. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the forms, growth rates, and taxa of coralline algae in various parts of the world. The quantity and quality of the light impinging on coralline algae certainly have a strong influence on their growth and development. When coralline algae have been cultured under laboratory conditions relatively low light intensities have resulted in the best growth. The sensitivity of coralline algae to desiccation was pointed out in a study of shorelines uplifted during the 1964 Alaskan earthquake. Coralline algae commonly grow well where water motion is pronounced. Conflicting reports have been made of the effects that domestic sewage discharged into the ocean in southern California has on articulated coralline algae.