Waste minimization has been the theme of several publications and conferences. At the conferences, the most interesting and useful papers are often the case studies that document experiences in applying particular technologies. However, almost without exception, the presentations describe only success stories. For successful minimization programs, support is provided at a sufficiently high management level to influence production and environmental policy decisions. Frequently, waste disposal and environmental protection are viewed as service functions that are subservient to production. In a cost-cutting and staff-reduction environment, it is usually difficult to justify adding personnel for environmental protection. Successful modification usually requires use of production resources to provide environmental protection. Many successful projects are led by a Champion who strongly believes in the modification, ramrods the project, and overcomes development and startup problems. A Champion has to overcome the inertia that protects an existing process that “works”.