Intheprecedingchapterwediscussedthegeneralbehaviorandtheelasto-plastic analysisofbeam-columns.Inthischapterwefocusonpracticalmethodsforthe

design of beam-columns. In the design of beam-columns, due consideration must be given to the additional moments that arise as a result of the P-delta effects. These moments, referred to as secondary moments, may have a significant effect on beam-column strength and cannot be ignored in the design of beam-columns. The nature of these secondary moments and the manner in which they are taken into consideration in design are presented in this chapter.