After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

sketch the sympathetic pathway from brainstem to blood vessel and adrenal medulla (14.1);

name the neurotransmitters and receptors mediating sympathetic vasomotor neurotransmission (14.1);

list the chief functions of sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves (14.1);

state the distribution, roles and neurotransmitters of parasympathetic vasodilator nerves (14.2) and sympathetic vasodilator nerves (14.3);

explain the meaning of ‘sensory axon reflex’ (14.4);

contrast the cardiovascular effects of intravenous adrenaline and noradrenaline (14.6);

outline the formation, action and regulation of angiotensin II, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide (14.7–14.9);

state the importance and main mechanisms of venous control (14.10).